Organization Climate Study - diagnosing causal factors for low morale
Culture Change Workshop
Five Team Competencies Workshop
Leadership and Team Development Workshops Workshops can be customized for your specific needs and time constraints. Highly participative sessions can connect leadership topics, such as the ones listed below, to current organizational challenges.
The Situational Leadership Model and the History of Theories of Leadership
At the height of the Industrial Revolution, Fredrick Taylor espoused the theories of Scientific Management with a mechanical view of work, abstracting the person from it, leading to time and motion studies and focus on tasks.In the early 1930’s the Hawthorne Studies, at Western Electric in Hawthorne, Illinois, by Harvard sociologist Elton Mayo, led to a break from scientific management and the initiation of the human relations movement. In the human relations movement various theories emerged from 1940 to 1970 to describe leadership effectiveness.This ultimately led to the Situational Leadership Model proposed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard which aligns four basic types of leadership strategies with each of four follower readiness levels.The readiness levels are determined by two parameters: competence and commitment.Leaders must diagnose follower needs and then use the appropriate leadership strategy to establish a work environment that meets those needs resulting in the highest productivity levels. A mismatch of leader strategy and follower readiness leads to dysfunction.
Five Team Competencies
Many companies today have competency models which they utilize for people development and performance feedback systems.Based on the work done by Patrick Lencioni in his book, The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, a team competency model can be visualized with depicts the key qualities that result in optimum team effectiveness.
Ten Dimensions of Organizational Health
Dr. Matthew Miles of ColumbiaUniversity proposed a definition of organizational health and a model of ten dimensions, or “vital signs”, for measuring it.Dr. Marvin Fairman at the University of Arkansas, through a 3-year research study, developed an instrument for measuring these dimensions in intact teams.Much data has been gathered through a period of over 20 years including many types of teams and organizations.Further studies have conclusively demonstrated that increased strength of these dimensions directly reflects increased leadership capacity and is very strongly correlated with output measures (productivity).Training on this topic is integral to the Organizational Health Improvement Process and is provided only in connection with engagements which include team measurement and follow up.
William Marston, HarvardUniversity, proposed the DISC model in his 1928 book, The Emotions of Normal People.This model was later measured through various instruments that ask respondents to make forced choice comparisons that describe what behaviors are most and least like them.The acronym DISC stands for the four factors that measure four basic temperaments observed in human behavior.DISC deals with observable behaviors and emotions as opposed to hidden thinking patterns and thus it has been found to be an easily understood and easy to apply conceptual framework for understanding the preferences of others.Deeper understanding of one’s own profile and how to “people read” can lead to improved communication, understanding, and relationships. Online assessments are available for gathering DISC data as well as PIAV data mentioned below.
Eduard Spranger developed a model describing basic human attitudes in his book , The Types of Men, published in 1928.From this the PIAV (Personal Interests Attitudes and Values) Model and instrument was developed which describes and measures six attitudes: Theoretical, Utilitarian, Aesthetic, Social, Individualistic, and Traditional. The attitudes are hierarchical in an individual with the top two attitudes coloring the other four. Understanding the top two attitudes, as identified with the PIAV instrument, allows one to know what a person’s key drivers are, what they are most passionate about pursuing.DISC in combination with PIAV can provide powerful insights into what our passions are, the “why” of what is driving us (PIAV), and then “how” we go about fulfilling the passions (DISC).
LEAPS is a model for handling difficult communication.It was developed by Bill Crawford, Ph.D. and highlighted in a PBS special television program, “Dealing With Difficult People.”The model emphasizes the underlying psychological motivators that may be in play when people we are trying to persuade to our point of view are resisting our efforts.Strategies are provided for successful interactions that emphasize meeting the psychological needs of others, primarily fears, as a first priority before actively engaging in problem solving.
Ladders of Inference
The Ladders of Inference model was first proposed by Dr. Chris Argyris, HarvardBusinessSchool, as a conceptual framework for understanding the often hidden assumptions or governing principles that lead people in organizations to arrive at conclusions.In group discussions, oft times conclusions are debated without exploring and testing underlying assumptions.By disclosing assumptions through open advocacy and authentic inquiry, what he terms as “double-loop” learning can be achieved in organizations.This leads to higher quality decisions and solving of problems before serious business impacts eventually force crisis-mode actions and adjustment in governing variables.
Good To Great
Jim Collins published Good to Great: Why Some Companies Take the Leap and Others Don’t.Through a six year research study of over 1400 companies, his research team identified six distinguishing variables that are characteristic of companies who emerge from the pack of “just good” companies to become truly great and sustainably so.The Good to Great Model describes some vital principles around disciplined people, disciplined thought, and disciplined action.
Leadership is the “motherload” variable that is crucial in giving organizations the capacity to adapt to change.Creating and filling a “pipeline” of top notch leaders in organizations has become a critical success factor.Charan, Drotter and Noel, in their book The Leadership Pipeline: How to Build the Leadership Powered Company, describe a model for putting in place an organizational system for leader development.Their model highlights the critical shifts leaders must make in skills applied, allocation of time, and values, as they progress upward throughout their career.Failure to understand these major shifts results in derailed careers.Fully understanding them and adapting results in personal growth and positive business impacts.Armed with this understanding, organizations and individuals can commit to these major shifts at the beginning of a new job with expanded responsibilities.Organizations can likewise better prepare individuals with the requisite skills and values.
Managing From the Heart
The popular book, Managing From the Heart, by Bracey, Rosenblum, Sanford, and Trueblood, presents five key principles for developing highly effective and productive relationships in organizations: (1) Hear and Understand Me, (2) Even if you disagree don't make me wrong, (3) Acknowleged the greatness within me, (4) Remember to look for my loving intentions, (5) Tell me the truth with compassion. These five principles are actually five requests everyone at work makes of you. As simple as they sound, they are almost universally neglected in organizations and are crowded out by work demands and the pressures to meet ever increasing challenges. Aligning around these principles allows teams to take a giant leap forward in building highly productive relationships and unleash power in their organizations.